How to Select Sibling Elements in XPath?

XPath is a query language designed specifically for navigating and processing XML documents. One of its most useful features is the ability to select elements based on their sibling relationships. Sibling elements are elements that share the same immediate parent element. XPath provides powerful axes that enable you to target siblings in versatile ways.

In this comprehensive guide, we will take an in-depth look at the various methods and axes provided by XPath to select sibling elements.

Why Learn To Select Sibling Elements?

But first, why is selecting siblings such an important technique? What makes it worthwhile investing time to learn XPath's sibling selection capabilities?

  • Analyze elements in context: By selecting siblings you can analyze an element in the context of its surrounding elements. For example finding the minimum or maximum year value from sibling <year> elements.
  • Aggregate sibling content: Selecting all siblings allows you to combine or consolidate their content, for example aggregating text from paragraphs.
  • Filter based on hierarchy: You can filter elements based on their positional relationships, like finding the first or last sibling.
  • Compare relative values: By selecting and referencing siblings you can derive comparative values. For example checking if a salary is higher than a sibling employee's salary.
  • Isolate shared attributes: Selecting elements that have the same parent lets you isolate common attributes, like grouping books by year.

These are just some of the common use cases where sibling selection provides powerful capabilities for processing XML data. Studies on real-world XPath usage have found sibling axes like following-sibling account for 8-12% of all XPath expressions. So learning sibling selection is crucial for mastering XPath.

Understanding Sibling Elements

Before diving into the syntax, let's build a solid conceptual understanding of what sibling elements actually are. In XML, elements that have the same immediate parent are considered siblings.

For example:





Here the two <book> elements are siblings because they share the same parent <bookstore> element. The <title>, <author>, <year> elements inside each <book> are also siblings with each other, as they share <book> as their parent. In short, any elements that have the same direct parent element are sibling elements in XML terminology.

This nested hierarchical structure is what makes XML so powerful for representing real world data. XPath leverages the innate sibling relationships to allow sophisticated selection logic.

XPath Axes for Selecting Siblings

The main XPath axes for selecting sibling elements are:

  • following-sibling – to select elements after the current element
  • preceding-sibling – to select elements before the current element

These axes logically traverse to the required siblings based on their position relative to the current node you are at. Let's look at each axis more closely.

following-sibling Axis

The following-sibling axis selects all siblings that come after (follow) the current element. For example:

<!-- Select all following sibling <book> elements -->

This will select the 2nd <book>, 3rd <book> etc. because they follow the first <book> in document order. To select following siblings of any element type, use *:

<!-- Select all siblings after current element -->

Key Facts About following-sibling:

  • Travels forward along the sibling axis
  • Selects all siblings after the current element
  • Supports filtering by element name or * wildcard
  • Very useful for navigating document order

Following siblings are incredibly useful when you need to process XML in a forward direction. For example, looping through all books while tracking the previous book context.

preceding-sibling Axis

The preceding-sibling axis selects all siblings before (preceding) the current element. For example:

<!-- Select the preceding <book> element -->  

This will select the first <book> as it precedes the second <book>. You can also use the * wildcard:

<!-- Select all preceding siblings -->

Key Facts About preceding-sibling:

  • Travels backwards along the sibling axis
  • Selects all siblings before the current element
  • Supports filtering by element name or wildcard
  • Useful for navigating XML in reverse order

The preceding-sibling axis moves against document order, allowing you to query backwards. This is immensely powerful for use cases like analyzing historical trends.

Combining and Comparing Sibling Axes

You can also combine following-sibling and preceding-sibling to select siblings between two known elements. For example:

<!-- Select siblings between book 1 and book 3 -->

This selects all elements between the first and third <book> elements. You can even perform boolean comparisons between siblings selected via axes:

<!-- Check if 2nd book's year is greater than 1st book's year --> 
/bookstore/book[2]/year > /bookstore/book[1]/year

As you can see, combining sibling axes gives you extremely powerful ways to relate and reference elements in XML.

Selecting Siblings via Position

In addition to axis navigation, siblings can also be selected by their numeric position using predicates. Some examples:

<!-- Select first <book> -->

<!-- Select second <book> -->

<!-- Select last <book> -->

This allows you to access siblings by their ordinal position. You can also count backwards from the last sibling using last():

<!-- Select second last sibling -->

This provides great flexibility for targeting elements based on positional logic like “select the nth sibling”.

Using Logical Operators

Predicates support using logical operators like <, >, <= for positional testing:

<!-- Books after 2nd -->
/bookstore/book[position() > 2]

<!-- First 3 books --> 
/bookstore/book[position() <= 3]

You can also combine logical predicates with sibling axes:

<!-- Books between 2nd and 4th -->
/bookstore/book[2]/following-sibling::book[position() < 3]

This adds powerful conditional logic to isolate siblings by their positional attributes.

Recursive Descendant Selection

The double slash // is useful for selecting descendant sibling elements recursively at any depth. For example:

<!-- Select all <book> descendants anywhere -->

<!-- Second <book> descendant anywhere -->

This provides a convenient shorthand for accessing deep descendant siblings without having to specify long nested paths.

Accessing Sibling Attributes and Values

While sibling axes select full elements, you can also directly access attributes and values of siblings. For example:

<!-- Title of 2nd <book> -->

<!-- Year of previous <book> -->  

And using wildcards:

<!-- All values in previous <book> -->

So sibling axes combined with attribute/value access gives you granular data selection capabilities.

Using Sibling Axes Across Documents

The XPath data model treats XML documents as trees of elements and attributes. Sibling relationships exist between elements within a single document tree. But you can also use sibling axes to select elements across multiple XML documents by combining them with the XPath doc() function.

For example:

<!-- Select book titles across all documents -->  

This allows sibling axes to work across collections of XML documents, not just a single document.

Comparative Analysis of Other Languages

Other XML languages like XSLT and XQuery have similar syntactic constructs for selecting siblings:

  • XSLT provides the following-sibling and preceding-sibling axes for navigating siblings. The semantics are identical to XPath sibling axes.
  • XQuery uses the << and >> operators to traverse to following and preceding siblings respectively.

For example:

-- XQuery preceding sibling
book[2] >> book[1] 

-- Equivalent XPath

So while syntactically different, these languages share the same navigational model and can express equivalent sibling selection logic.

Advanced Usage of Sibling Axes

We've covered the basics of XPath's sibling axes. Now let's discuss some more advanced usage techniques.

Chaining Multiple Sibling Axes

You can chain together multiple following-sibling and preceding-sibling axes to select elements multiple positions away from the current node. For example:

<!-- Skip 2 following siblings -->

<!-- Go back 2 preceding siblings -->  

This allows jumping multiple sibling positions in a single expression.

Combining Sibling Axes With Other Axes

Sibling axes can be combined with other XPath axes like parent and child for additional flexibility. For example:

<!-- Select parent of all preceding siblings -->

<!-- Children of next sibling -->

Mixing axes gives you the full power of XPath selection in a single expression.

Positional or Conditional Predicates

As we saw earlier, predicates can filter siblings by position or conditionally using operators like >, < etc. Some advanced predicate examples:

<!-- Books since year 2000 -->
/bookstore/book[year > 2000]

<!-- Last 3 books in reverse -->
/bookstore/book[position() <=3 and position() > last()-3]

<!-- Title length > 10 characters --> 
/bookstore/book[string-length(title) > 10]

Predicates give you unlimited possibilities to isolate siblings by position, value, string comparisons and more.

Optimizing Sibling Selection Performance

When selecting siblings, try to be as specific in your axis as possible. For example:

<!-- FAST -->

<!-- SLOW -->

The first targets a specific book rather than all books. This helps the XPath evaluator optimize and avoid scanning all siblings. If possible, prefer absolute positional predicates over relative axes where you know the positions.

Putting It All Together

Let's see some real-world examples that bring together everything we have covered about selecting siblings:

Group books by year

  for $yr in distinct-values(/bookstore/book/year)
  <yearBooks year="{$yr}"> 
  {/bookstore/book[year = $yr]}

This demonstrates selecting siblings sharing the same year and grouping them.

Concatenate book titles

concat(/bookstore/book/title, ', ')

This aggregates values from sibling books into a single result.

Find minimum publishing year


Selects the year values of all siblings and returns the min.

Check for duplicate books

some $b in /bookstore/book satisfies 
  some $c in /bookstore/book[following-sibling::book] satisfies
    $b/title = $c/title

This logic uses satisfies and following-sibling to check for books with duplicate titles.

These are just a sample of the diverse use cases enabled by sophisticated sibling selection capabilities.

Tips for Selecting Siblings

Here are some useful tips for selecting siblings effectively:

  • Use following-sibling and preceding-sibling axes to target elements before or after the current node.
  • Apply the wildcard * to include all siblings instead of specific elements only.
  • Use positional predicates like [1][last()] and [position() > 3] to filter siblings by position.
  • Combine axes like following-sibling with wildcards and positional predicates for maximum flexibility.
  • Use // descendant selection as a shortcut when recursive sibling access needed.
  • Select child elements of siblings using simple child axes like /book[2]/title.
  • Think relationally – use sibling selection to compare values, isolate shared attributes, aggregate content etc.


Mastering sibling selection in XPath—using techniques like following-sibling, preceding-sibling, and logical operators—unlocks powerful querying capabilities. This allows for intricate XML processing beyond mere element selection. When combined with attributes and conditional logic, it offers a dynamic approach to querying. Discover the depth of XPath's sibling axes, and if this guide enlightens you, please share it with others.

John Rooney

John Rooney

John Watson Rooney, a self-taught Python developer and content creator with a focus on web scraping, APIs, and automation. I love sharing my knowledge and expertise through my YouTube channel, My channel caters to all levels of developers, from beginners looking to get started in web scraping to experienced programmers seeking to advance their skills with modern techniques. I have worked in the e-commerce sector for many years, gaining extensive real-world experience in data handling, API integrations, and project management. I am passionate about teaching others and simplifying complex concepts to make them more accessible to a wider audience. In addition to my YouTube channel, I also maintain a personal website where I share my coding projects and other related content.

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