Are you struggling to scrape sites protected by Cloudflare's robust bot management tools? You're not alone. With over 20% of the top 1000 sites now using Cloudflare, their advanced anti-scraping system has become the bane of many scrapers' existence. In this comprehensive guide, you'll learn proven tips and tricks to bypass Cloudflare protections and resume scraping valuable data.
What is Cloudflare and How Does it Block Scrapers?
Cloudflare operates a content delivery network (CDN) and distributed domain name service (DNS). It sits between visitors and a website's origin server, acting as a reverse proxy. Many sites use Cloudflare for performance and security benefits. However, its bot management features also make it notoriously difficult to scrape. Here's an overview of how Cloudflare blocks scrapers:
- Analyzes web traffic to calculate a “trust score”
- Checks if the score meets a threshold required to access the site
- Blocks visitors deemed untrustworthy (i.e. bots)
- Prevents scraping through a variety of identification techniques
When Cloudflare blocks a request, you'll see common errors like 403 Forbidden, 503 Service Unavailable, 1015 Rate Limited, etc. Understanding Cloudflare's bot detection methods is key to bypassing its protections.
Cloudflare's Arsenal of Bot Detection Techniques
Cloudflare utilizes a robust array of techniques to detect bots vs real users. Let's explore each of these in more detail, so we can design effective countermeasures.
Pinpointing Bots Through TLS/SSL Handshakes
TLS/SSL encryption powers secure HTTPS connections that underpin most of the modern web. When you enter
https:// in your browser and hit enter, a TLS handshake negotiation occurs under the hood before any data is exchanged. During this process, the client and server agree on the version of TLS/SSL to use, select encryption ciphers, exchange keys, and perform authentication.
Each browser follows very specific handshake patterns based on their embedded TLS library. Common examples:
However, scrapers built on less common TLS libraries can stand out easily. For example, a Python scraper using Requests module and CPython may use OpenSSL – which has some subtle differences. By fingerprinting attributes of the TLS handshake, Cloudflare can identify oddities and recognize certain bots and scraping tools.
Some key things they may examine:
- TLS version (e.g 1.2 vs 1.3)
- Order of cipher suites offered
- Available cipher suites
- Extensions like ALPN supported
- Signature algorithms used
- Compression methods
- And much more
Bypassing TLS Handshake Detection
To avoid handshake detection, use scraping tools with generic, browser-like handshakes. For Python, Requests through PyOpenSSL often works well, as it produces very browser-like TLS signatures. Browser automation tools like Selenium and Puppeteer are also great options, since they fully emulate browser handshakes.
Finally, using upstream proxies that terminate and initiate new SSL connections is an effective technique, as the handshake to the target site comes from the proxy's IP rather than your scraper's.
Is Your Source IP Suspicious?
Many key clues also come from properties of the source IP address making the request. Cloudflare maintains a large database profiling the reputation of different IP ranges, which contributes to the bot score.
Residential IPs get the highest reputation, as they normally indicate real home users accessing the internet.
Datacenter IPs are almost guaranteed to get low scores, as ordinary humans rarely browse directly from AWS, Google Cloud, etc. Scrapers hosted in datacenters stand out.
Mobile carrier IPs also score well, as multiple human users share IPs and IP blocks while browsing on their cell networks.
By default, most scrapers originate from datacenter IPs on servers or in the cloud – a huge red flag.
Masking Your IP Reputation
Proxy services that provide residential or mobile IPs are extremely useful for improving your IP score. Popular options include residential rotating proxy services, mobile proxies, and private proxy networks. Scraping through these can make your bots appear to be real households or mobile users.
Here's a comparison of residential, datacenter, and mobile proxies:
|Type||IP Reputation||Price||Speed||Use Case|
|Residential||High||Medium||Medium||General web scraping|
|Datacenter||Low||Low||High||Quick tests, speed critical scraping|
|Mobile||High||High||Medium||Sites targeting mobile experience|
Whichever proxy type you use, be sure to frequently rotate IPs and providers to avoid burning through reputation.
The Telltale Signs in HTTP Headers
Your scraper's HTTP headers can also give away vital clues to observant bot detectors like Cloudflare. Here are a few common ways legitimate browsers differ from some scrapers:
- HTTP protocol – Browsers use modern HTTP/2, while older scrapers may still use HTTP/1.1
- User-Agent – Browsers have valid, up to date browser and OS strings, while scrapers can use unusual or outdated values
- Header order – Browsers tend to send headers like User-Agent, Accept, etc in a consistent order, unlike some tools that scramble them randomly
- Header casing – Browsers normally send lowercase header names, while some libraries use Title-Cased names inconsistently
- Accept types – Browsers accept common types like
text/html, while scrapers may omit these if they don't intend to render pages
- Compression – Browsers indicate support for gzip and other compression with the Accept-Encoding header, which can be missing from some scrapers
And many other subtle factors that may give away the underlying HTTP library or tool used.
Camouflaging Scrapers in HTTP Traffic
To avoid betraying tells in HTTP headers:
- Use a legitimate browser User-Agent – Many tools allow customizing this
- Set appropriate Accept and Encoding types for normal pages
- Order headers carefully to match browser conventions
- Send lowercase headers mirroring real HTTP requests
- Use recent HTTP/2 rather than older protocols
Browser automation frameworks like Selenium handle headers seamlessly, and are often the easiest way to blend scraping traffic with organic browser activity.
- Probing which browser, OS, device they are on
- Testing what screen size, fonts, time zone and other properties are set to
- Looking for the presence of various browser plugins
- Checking what graphics and media capabilities are supported
- And much more
These techniques can reveal telltale differences between real user environments and headless scraping tools. For example, Selenium and Puppeteer run headless by default – meaning they spoof or emulate many properties instead of using a true browser. Plugins, media playback, and extensions may be limited.
Performance and capability testing often expose these headless browsers as different from the well-known fingerprints of Chrome, Safari, and others.
- Configure browsers to emulate human environments as closely as possible.
- Consider using a non-headless browser like a full Chrome or Firefox.
- Set convincing window size, timezone, fonts, plugins, etc.
- Avoid tipoffs from missing capabilities by having a functional browser.
Behavioral Analysis: Spotting Suspicious Activity
Beyond technical tells, Cloudflare also watches for behavioral patterns that match bots rather than humans. Some examples of unusual bot-like activity:
- Accessing hundreds of pages per second – far exceeding human speeds
- Following very methodical sequences – e.g. scraping every product page in order
- Hitting the site from multiple IPs simultaneously in a coordinated fashion
- Scrape spikes at odd hours when most humans are asleep
- Very consistent time gaps between requests, without natural variation
- Lack of clicks and cursor movement indicating advanced interaction
Basically, does your scraper act like a normal user browsing the site? Or is the pattern of activity too precise and rapid to seem human?
Mimicking Natural Human Behavior
To avoid raising red flags from your scraping patterns:
- Throttle request rates to human speeds of a few pages per second
- Induce randomness by adding varied delays and mixing up sequence
- Use multiple proxies so each IP handles a small part of the traffic
- Scrape during daytime hours following normal human cycles
- Add irrelevant activity like hovers and clicks to appear engaged
- Gradually ramp up scraping rather than suddenly heavy use from all IPs
Take advantage of browser automation tools to inherently act in organic ways. But also be sure to configure them to avoid blatantly non-human behavior. The key is blending in and avoiding patterns that make your automation obvious!
Bypassing Cloudflare Bot Management in Action
Now that we've explored Cloudflare's bag of bot detection tricks, let's discuss actionable techniques to evade them while scraping. Here are 6 proven tips and tools for bypassing Cloudflare protections:
1. Use Proxy Services to Change Your Source IPs
Proxies are essential for maximizing IP reputation and avoiding blocks from repeated scraping from datacenter IPs. Residential proxies in particular make your traffic appear to originate from real home broadband users.
Major proxy providers include:
- Bright Data – Large network of enterprise IPs
- Soax – Millions of residential proxies
- Smartproxy – Blends residential, mobile and datacenter
- Proxy-Seller – Performance-optimized residential proxies
Proxies can be purchased based on bandwidth, number of IPs, location targeting, and other criteria. Be sure to frequently rotate proxy IPs to maximize success over long scraping projects.
2. Perfectly Emulate a Human Browser's Headers
To avoid header-based detection, configure your scraper's headers to be indistinguishable from a real browser.
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/74.0.3729.169 Safari/537.36 Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3 Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9
3. Incorporate Browser Automation Frameworks
Browser automation tools like Selenium and Puppeteer provide the most comprehensive way to appear fully human:
- Headless modes emulates organic browser fingerprints as closely as possible
- Interaction follows natural patterns, with scrolling, cursor movements, etc.
The main downside is slower performance compared to raw HTTP requests. But the human-like behavior is unparalleled.
4. Rotate Distinct Scraping Environments
To avoid easy correlation of your bots, use a mix of different browsers, operating systems and tools across your scraper fleet.
For example, you may use:
- Selenium with Chrome on Windows
- Puppeteer with Chrome on Linux
- Playwright with Firefox on MacOS
- Python Requests on Ubuntu
- Node Fetch on Windows 10
Varying fingerprints across your bots makes linking them together much harder.
5. Throttle Request Rates To Human Speeds
Cloudflare relies heavily on request velocity to detect bots. Make sure to throttle and randomize delays in your scraper to mimic human pacing. For example:
# Add random delays between 1-3 seconds from random import randint delay = randint(1, 3) time.sleep(delay)
Gradually ramp up the scraper when starting from zero rather than abruptly heavy use. And avoid blatantly non-human speeds like > 10 pages per second.
6. Distribute Load Across Geographies and IPs
Spread load across multiple proxies, accounts, and regions.
Rather than scraping from a few IPs or a single datacenter, distribute bots via:
- Multi-region infrastructure – Scrape from North America, Europe, Asia, etc
- Numerous proxy providers – Rotate IPs from many vendors
- Browser distributions – Utilize browsers popular in each geography
This makes linking and correlating your scrapers much more difficult.
Advanced Tips for Dodging Cloudflare's Puzzle
Let's cover a few more advanced tactics that may help against Cloudflare's bot mitigation.
Target the True Origin IP Address
In some cases it's possible to bypass Cloudflare proxies entirely and hit origin servers directly.
- Using DNS lookups to find Cloudflare name servers for the target domain
- Enumerating the true origin IP from DNS records
- Making requests directly to the origin, ignoring Cloudflare
Solve Cloudflare CAPTCHAs When Needed
For moderately suspicious traffic, Cloudflare may present CAPTCHA challenges instead of blocking you outright. Having the ability to programmatically solve CAPTCHAs can help prove you're a human when challenged.
Use Cached Pages as an Alternative
Services like the Wayback Machine and Google Cache provide historical snapshots of sites. When facing a block, these caches can act as an alternative data source to avoid Cloudflare. However, data may be outdated and incomplete. Handle with care.
Is Scraping Cloudflare Sites Legal?
- Scraping public data is generally legal in the US and internationally.
- Accessing publicly available data is not “unauthorized access” under computer crime laws like the CFAA.
As always, consult an attorney if you have concerns around the legality of a specific scraping project. But in most cases, you can scrape Cloudflare sites without legal risk.
Summary & Recommendations
Cloudflare employs advanced techniques to identify and block scrapers. However, with the right strategy, savvy scrapers can still bypass its defenses to collect data. Here are some top recommendations when scraping sites protected by Cloudflare:
- Use residential proxy services to get reputable IPs.
- Perfectly mimic browser headers like User-Agent, and use HTTP/2.
- Incorporate browser automation tools like Selenium and Puppeteer.
- Limit request rates and randomly throttle scraping speed.
- Solve CAPTCHAs and distribute load across IPs.
With a proper bot detection evasion plan, you can successfully scrape target sites despite Cloudflare's protections. Just be sure to consult legal counsel and scrape ethically.